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It define a logical closure of any deliverable or cycle.Example you have completed the requirement phase with sign off from the client on the requirement document.So you put a baseline and say that further any changes to this document is a change request. Versioning of source code is one type of baseline.
Project Management triangle is depicted as Cost,Schedule and scope.These three aspect form the sides of triangle and the customer is the center point.As customer is always concerned about Cost,Scope and Schedule , so in order to get customer satisfaction project manager should deliver all scope in propose schedule and cost.
If we want to disturb any one of the legs then the other two legs get affected. Example If customer increases the scope then other two sides of the triangle also get affected a lot.Note:- During project management interview’s it’s rare that you will be asked directly about constraint triangle.But when you are asked about what are the main factors that affect customer satisfaction you can refer this triangle.
Note:- This questions is asked to test that as a project manager do you have a know how of all the project life cycles.In PMP (Project management plan) you have to specify saying whichsoftware development model you will follow. Definitely depending on client and project scenarios it’s the project manager’s responsibility to choose a development cycle.
SDLC (System Development Life Cycle) is overall process of developing information systems through multistep process systems from investigation of initial requirements through analysis, design, implementation and maintenance. The days are gone when one COBOL programmer used to analyze, test and implement software systems. Systems have become complex, huge team members are involved, architects, analyst, programmers, testers, users etc. To manage this number of SDLC models have been created.
Following are popular models which are listed:-
3. Build and Fix model.
4. Rapid prototyping Model.
5. Incremental Model.
This section we will go in to fair depth of different SDLC models.
Water Fall Model
This is the oldest model. It has sequence of stages; output of one stage becomes input of other.
Following are stages in Waterfall model:-
System Requirement: - This is initial stage of the project where end user requirements are gathered and documented.
System Design: - In this stage detail requirements, screen layout, business rules, process diagram, pseudo code and other documentations are prepared.
This is first step in technical phase.
Implementation: - Depending on the design document actual code is written here.
Integration and Testing: - All pieces are brought together and tested. Bugs are removed in this phase.
Acceptance, Installation and Deployment: - This is final stage where software is put in production and runs actual business.
Maintenance: - This is least glamorous phase which runs forever. Code Changes,correction, addition etc are done in this phase.
Waterfall is suited for low risk in areas of User Interface and performance requirements, but high risk in budget and schedule predictability and control. Waterfall assumes that all requirements can be specified in advance. But unfortunately requirement grows and changes through various stages, so it needs feedback from one stage to other.
Spiral Model removes the drawback of waterfall model, by providing emphasis to go back and reiterate earlier stages a number of times as project progresses. On broader level it’s a series of short waterfall cycles, each producing an early prototype representing a part of entire project. It also helps demonstrate a Proof of Concept at early software life cycle.
Build and Fix Model
This is the most way free-lancers work Write some code and keep modifying it until the customer is happy. This approach can be quite dangerous and risky.
Rapid Prototyping Model
This model is also called as Rapid Application Development. The initial emphasis is on creating prototype that looks and acts like the desired product. Prototype can be created by using tools which is different from those used for final product. Once the prototype is approved, its discarded and real software development is started from scratch. The problem with this model is that sometimes the prototype moves ahead to become the final live product which can be bad from design point of view. It’s a effective model but can have
higher costing than other models as you require programmers during the initial phase of the software cycle.
In this model we divide products in to builds, where section of product are created and tested separately. Here errors are found in requirement phase itself, user feedback is taken for each stage and code is tested after it’s written.
Risk is high at the start of project’s , but by proper POC (Proof of concept) risk is brought in control.Good project manager’s always have proper risk mitigation plan at the start of project.As the project continues one by one risk is eliminated thus bringing down the risk.
Twisted Question :- How many phases are there in software project ?
Life cycle of a project
There are five stages of any project initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closeout.These are very general phases and change according to domain.Example whenwriting a book i will have following mapping’s initiating(contacting publishers,getting copy right etc.), planning(Table of contents of book ,Number of chapters , tool to use,chapter wise deadlines etc), executing(Actually writing the book), controlling(proof
reading , language checks , page alignments etc), and closeout(Finally printing and on the shelf for sale).So this classification is at very broader level , for software development the above figure shows the mapping.
During Software project management interview expected answer is requirement phase, design phase ,coding phase , testing phase and project closure.But you can just impress the answer by giving a general answer and then showing the mapping.
Normally in initial stage of project’s (requirement and design phase) the cost is very less (As you need maximum is business analyst and architecture), but as the project proceeds cost factor starts increasing.The cost is maximum in coding phase (this is where you require programmers , project leads and project manager).Later when the project is in testing and acceptance phase cost is less as we will need only one or two programmers for removing bugs , than the whole team.